## Aim: Study of both the current-voltage characteristic and the power curve to find the maximum power point (MPP) and efficiency of a solar cell

### Procedure :

1. Take the Solar Energy Trainer NV6005 along with Solar Panel.

2. Place the solar panel in the stand and adjust the panel at an angle of about 45Âº
with the ground. Direct the sunlight straight at the solar panel (angle of 90Âº).

Note: If sunlight is not properly available then any source of light like a lamp can
be used.

3. With the DB15 connector connect the Solar Energy Trainer NV6005 with Solar
Panel. Then wait for 1 minute to avoid errors due to temperature fluctuations.

4. Set the potentiometer to maximum resistance i.e. at the fully clockwise position and
measure and record its resistance into the Observation Table.

5. Connect the solar cell as shown in the following circuit diagram.

#### Setup for determining characteristics of a solar cell

a. Connect the positive terminal of the solar cell to the P1 terminal of the potentiometer.

b. Connect another end of potentiometer i.e. P2 to the positive terminal of the ammeter.

c. Connect the negative terminal of the ammeter to the negative terminal of the solar cell.

d. Now connect the positive terminal of voltmeter to P1 and negative terminal
of the voltmeter to P2.

6. Record the values of corresponding voltage and current into the Observation
Table.

7. Now gradually move the potentiometer in an anti-clockwise direction so that the
resistance of the potentiometer decreases. Now measure the resistances at
successively smaller values and record the corresponding values of voltages and
current into the Observation Table below.

Note: Always to measure the resistance of potentiometer at any position, first
remove the patch cords from P1 and P2 and measure resistance by the multimeter.
Reconnect these connections again for further measurements.

8. Plot the I- V characteristics from the measurements recorded in the table, to
show how the photoelectric current depends on the photoelectric voltage and to
find a maximum powerpoint.

#### Expected I-V curve is as follows

From V-I characteristics you can easily find the maximum power point (MPP).
Maximum power point (MPP) occurs where the product of voltage and current is
greatest.

9. Plot the curve of power as a function of voltage from the measurements
recorded in the table.

#### Expected Power-Voltage curve is as follows

The maximum power point (MPP) is the maximum value of power in the above
curve.

The resistance, RMPP, at which the output power is at a maximum can be calculated
using the following formula:

### Result:

Max power is=33mwatt,Resistance max=75â„¦